Rice Bran Oil and Constituents
Research into Nutrition and Health Effects

Rice bran oil, in its natural state, contains several constituents of potential significance in diet and health. Interest has focused primarily upon gamma-oryzanol, tocotrienols, and tocopherols, all of which demonstrate antioxidant properties. The latter two are naturally-occurring forms of Vitamin E. The following list of publications is provided as a resource for those interested in learning more about these properties.

Kahlon, T.S., F.I. Chow, M.M. Chiu, C.A. Hudson and R.N. Sayre. 1996.
Cholesterol-Lowering by Rice Bran and Rice Bran Oil Unsaponifiable Matter in Hamsters. Cereal Chemistry 73(1): 69-74.

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Dunford, N.T. Health Benefits and Processing of Lipid-Based Nutritionals. 2001. Food Technol. 55 (11): 38-44.

Eitenmiller, R. R. 1997. Vitamin E Content of Fats and Oils: Nutritional Implications. Food Technol. 51(5): 78-81.

Fry, A.C., E. Bonner, D.L. Lewis, R.L. Johnson, M.H. Stone, and W.J. Kraemer. 1997. The Effects of Gamma-Oryzanol Supplementation During Resistance Exercise Training. International Journal of Sport Nutrition 7(4): 318-329.

Gould, M.N., J.D. Haag, W.S. Kennan, et al. 1991. A Comparison of Tocopherol and Tocotrienol for the Chemoprevention of Chemically Induced Rat Mammary Tumors. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 53: 1068S.

Haque, M.H., and A.U. Haque. 1999. Compositions for the Prevention and Treatment of Warts, Skin Blemishes and Other Viral-Induced Tumors. U.S. Patent No. 05945116.

Hata, A., S. Koga, H. Shigematsu, S. Kato, et al. 1981. Study on Effects of Gamma-Oryzanol on Hyperlipemia – Multicenter Cooperative Pilot Study for Dosage Finding. Geriat. Med. 19: 1813-1840.

Hiramitsu, T. and D. Armstrong. 1991. Preventive Effect of Antioxidants on Lipid Peroxidation in the Retina. Ophthalmic Res. 23: 196-203.

Hirose, M., K. Ozaki, K. Takaba, L. Fukushima, T. Shirai, and N. Ito. 1991. Modifying Effects of the Naturally Occurring Antioxidants g-Oryzanol, Phytic Acid, Tannic Acid, and n-Tritriacontane-16, 18-Dione in a Rat Wide-Spectrum Organ Carcinogenesis Model. Carcinogenesis 12(10): 1917-1921.

Ichimaru, Y., M. Moriyama, M. Ichimaru, and Y. Gomita. 1984. Effects of Gamma-Oryzanol on Gastric Lesions and Small Intestinal Propulsive Activity in Mice. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 84(6): 537-542.

Imai, Y., T. Ogawa, C. Tsurmi, M. Kitagawa, and H. Tanaka. 1994. Food Additive and Use Thereof. PCT Int’l. Patent Application WO 94/07378A1.

Itaya, K. and J. Kiyonaga. 1976. Studies of Gamma-Oryzanol (1). Effects on Stress- Induced Ulcer. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 72(4): 475-481.

Itaya, K., J. Kiyonaga, and M. Ishikawa. 1976. Studies of Gamma-Oryzanol (2). The Antiulcerogenic Action. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 72(8): 1001-1011.

Kahlon, T.S., and F.I. Chow. 1997. Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Oat, Rice, and Barley Dietary Fibers and Fractions. Cereal Foods World 42(2): 86-92.

Kahlon, T.S., R.M. Saunders, R.N. Sayre, and F.I Chow. 1992b. Cholesterol-
Lowering Effects of Rice Bran and Rice Bran Oil Fractions in Hypercholesterolemic Hamsters. Cereal Chemistry 69: 485-489.

Kim, J.S., J.S. Godber, J.M. King, W. Prinyawiwatkul, and H.Y. Chung. 2000. Vitamin E Vitamers and g-Oryzanol from Rice Bran Inhibit the Formation of 7-Ketocholesterol in Aqueous Dispersion System. (51E-1). Book of Abstracts: IFT Annual Meeting, Dallas, Texas. June 10-14.

Koba, K., J. W. Liu, E. Bobik, M, Sugano and Y. S. Huang. 2000. Cholesterol Supplementation Attenuates the Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Rice Bran Oil in Rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminology (Tokyo) 46(2): 58-64.

Lichenstein, A.H., L.M. Ausman, W. Carrasco, L.J. Gualtieri, J.L. Jenner, J.M. Ordovas, R.J. Nicolosi, B.R. Goldin, and E.J. Schaefer. 1994. Rice Bran Oil Consumption and Plasma Lipid Levels in Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Humans. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 14(4): 549-556.

Ling, W.H., and P.J.H. Jones. 1995. Minireview Dietary Phytosterols: A Review of Metabolism, Benefits and Side Effects. Life Sci. 57: 195-206.

Mizuta, K., H. Kaneta, and K. Itaya. 1978. Effects of Gamma-Oryzanol on Gastric Secretions in Rats (Author’s Tranl). Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 74(2): 285-295.

Nakayama, S., A. Manabe, J. Suzuki, K. Sakamoto, and T. Inagake. 1987. Comparative Effects of Two Forms of g-Oryzanol in Different Sterol Compositions on Hyperlipidemia Induced by Cholesterol Diet in Rats. Japan Journal of Pharmacology 44(2): 135-143.

Nesaretnam, K., R. Stephen, R. Dils, and P. Darbre. 1998. Tocotrienols Inhibit the Growth of Human Breast Cancer Cells Irrespective of Estrogen Receptor Status. Lipids 33: 461-469.

Nicolosi, R.J. 1991. Health Benefits Attributed to Derivatives of Rice Bran. Cereal Foods World 36(8): 720.

Nicolosi, R.J., L.M. Ausman, and D.M. Hegsted. 1991. Rice Bran Oil Lowers
Serum Total and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Apo B Levels in Nonhuman Primates. Atherosclerosis 88: 133-142.

Nicolosi, R.J., and S. Liang. 1991. Comparative Effects of Rice Bran Oil, Soybean Oil and Coconut Oil on Lipoprotein Levels, Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidizability and Fatty Streak Formulation in Hypercholesterolemic Hamsters. Arteriosclerosis 11: 1603a.

Papas, A. and A. Moore. 1998. Tocotrienols: A New Dietary Supplement. (NPT1-9). Book of Abstracts: IFT Annual Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia. June 20-24.

Qureshi, A.A., N. Qureshi, J.O. Hasler-Rapacz, F.E. Weber, V. Chaudhary, T.D. Crenshaw, A. Gapor, A.S.H Ong, Y.H. Chong, D. Peterson and J. Rapacz. 1991. Dietary Tocotrienols Reduce Concentrations of Plasma Cholesterol, Apolipoprotein B. Thromboxane B2, and Platelet Factor 4 in Pigs with Inherited Hyperlipidemia. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 53: 1042S-1046S.

Quershi, A.A., N. Quershi, J.J.K. Wright, Z. Shen, A. Kramer, A. Gapor, Y.H. Chong, G. DeWitt, A.S.H. Ong, D.M. Peterson, and B.A. Bradlow. 1991. Lowering of Serum Cholesterol in Hypercholesterolemic Humans by Tocotrienols (palmvitee). Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 53: 1021S-1026.

Quershi, A.A., W.A. Salser, R. Parmer, and E.E. Emerson. 2001. Novel Tocotrienols of Rice Bran Inhibit Atherosclerotic Lesions in C57BL/6 ApoE-Deficient Mice. J. of Nutrition 131(10): 2606-2618.

Raghuram, T.C., U.B. Rao, and C. Rukmini. 1989. Studies on Hypolipidemic Effects of Dietary Rice Bran Oil in Human Subjects. Nutr. Rep. Intl. 39: 889.

Rogers, E.J., S.M. Rice, R.J. Nicolosi, D.R. Carpenter, C.A. McClelland, and L.J. Romanczyk, Jr. 1993. Identification and Quantitation of g-Oryzanol Components and Simultaneous Assessment of Tocols in Rice Bran Oil. J. AOCS 70(3): 301-307.

Rong, N., L.M. Ausman, and R.J. Nicolosi. 1997. Oryzanol Decreases Cholesterol Absorption and Aortic Fatty Steaks in Hamsters. Lipids 32(3): 303-309.

Rukmini, C. 1988. Chemical, Nutritional, and Toxicological Studies of Rice Bran Oil. Food Chemistry 30: 257-268.

Rukmini, C. and T. C. Raghuram. 1991. Nutritional and Biochemical Aspects of the Hypolipidemic Action of Rice Bran Oil: A Review. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 10(6): 593-601.

Sasaki, J., Y. Takada, K. Handa, M. Kusuda, Y. Tanabe, A. Matsunaga, and K. Arakawa. 1990. Effects of Gamma-Oryzanol on Serum Lipids and Apolipoproteins in Dyslipidemic Schizophrenics Receiving Major Tranquilizers. Clinical Therapeutics 12(3): 263-268.

Seetharamaiah, G.S. and N. Chandrasekhara. 1988. Hypocholesterolemic Activity of Oryzanol in Rats. Nutr. Rep. Intl. 38(5): 927-935.

Seetharamaiah, G.S. and N. Chandrasekhara. 1989. Studies on Hypocholesterolemic Activity of Rice Bran Oil. Atherosclerosis 78: 219-223.

Seetharamaiah, G.S. and N. Chandrasekhara. 1990. Effect of Oryzanol on Cholesterol Absorption and Biliary and Fecal Bile Acids in Rats. Indian J. Med. Res. 92: 471-475.

Seetharamaiah, G.S., T.P. Krishnakantha, and N. Chandrasekhara. 1990. Influence of Oryzanol on Platelet Aggregation in Rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 36(3): 291-297.

Sharma, R.D., and C. Rukmini. 1986. Rice Bran Oil and Hypocholesterolemia in Rats. Lipids 21: 715-717.

Sugano, M., and E. Tsuji. 1997. Rice Bran Oil and Cholesterol Metabolism. Journal of Nutrition 127(3): 521S-524S.

Tamagawa, M., Y. Otaki, T. Takahashi, T. Otaka, S. Kimura, and T. Miwa. 1992. Carcinogenicity Study of g-Oryzanol in B6C3F1 Mice. Food & Chemical Toxicology 30(1): 49-56.

Tamagawa, M., Y. Shimizu, T. Takahashi, T. Otaka, S. Kimura, H. Kadowaki, F. Uda, and T. Miwa. 1992. Carcinogenicity Study of g-Oryzanol in F344 Rats. Food & Chemical Toxicology 30(1): 41-48.

Taylor, J.B., T.M. Richard, C.L. Wilhelm, M.M. Chrysam, M. Otterburn, and G.A. Leveille. 1996. Rice Bran Oil Antioxidant. U.S. Patent No. 5,552,167.

Tomeo, A.C., M. Geller, T.R. Watkins, A. Gapor and M.L. Bierenbaum. 1995. Antioxidant Effects of Tocotrienols in Patients with Hyperlipidemia and Carotid Stenosis. Lipids 30(12): 1179-1183.

Vissers, M.N., P.L. Zock, G.W. Meijer, and M.B. Katan. 2000. Effect of Plant Sterols from Rice Bran Oil and Triterpene Alcohols from Sheanut Oil on Serum Lipoprotein Concentrations in Humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 72: 1510-1515.

Wheeler, K.B. and K.A. Garleb. 1991. g-Oryzanol-Plant Sterol Supplementation: Metabolic, Endocrine, and Physiologic Effects. Int’l. J. Sport Nutr. 1: 170-177.

Yoshino, G. et al. 1989. Effects of Gamma Oryzanol on Hyperlipidemic Subjects. Current Therapeutic Res. 45(4): 543-552.